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TDS: Meaning, TDS Rate, Due Dates, and Return Filing


Many people have heard of TDS (Tax Deducted at Source), but are not able to fully grasp its concept due to lack of understanding in its rules, functioning, and important. To improve your understanding of India’s complex tax system, our detailed look into TDS has been provided. This guide will assist you in comprehending what TDS is, how it operates, and its impact on the government’s tax regime. From its prime use as a source of tax collection to ensuring compliance, we examine the various scenarios and payment kinds liable to TDS and the respective responsibilities upon each, the TDS deductors, and the ones taxed.

Understanding TDS

A key element of the government's taxation system is Tax Deducted at Source (TDS), which guarantees a direct deduction from the source of income in order to expedite the collection of taxes. Under this method, before paying the recipient their due amount, the person or entity making the payment is required to withhold a certain proportion of tax. The government directly receives this withheld tax, allowing for effective revenue collection. TDS is applied to a number of transactions, such as professional fees, dividends, interest, and wages. TDS's main goals are to reduce tax evasion, improve tax compliance, and guarantee the government's continuous stream of income. This approach accomplishes two goals

  • Revenue Collection: By pre-collecting taxes on income received by people or companies, TDS guarantees a steady stream of funds for the government.

  • Compliance and Monitoring: By mandating the deductor withholding tax during payment transactions, TDS helps enforce and monitor tax compliance. It discourages tax avoidance by serving as a tool for tracking different financial activities.

Salary, interest, rent, professional fees, commission, contractual payments, dividends, and other payment kinds are all subject to TDS. The Income Tax Act's provisions and the kind of payment determine which deduction rates apply.

The deductor has the responsibility of deducting taxes, providing the deductee with a TDS certificate, and depositing the amount of taxes deducted with the government within the designated timeframe. The TDS amount may subsequently be adjusted against the deductee's total tax burden throughout the income tax return filing process.

It's important to remember that TDS does not relieve people of their need to file an income tax return (ITR). Regardless of whether TDS has been withheld, submitting an ITR is required if the income exceeds the basic exemption level.

Take into consideration an example where TDS is based on pay income. For example, in the fiscal year 2022–2023, if a person receives a total salary of Rs. 6,00,000 (Rs. 50,000 per month) and has no other income, they would have tax responsibility when they file their return. We'll look at two scenarios—one with TDS deducted under Section 192 and another without TDS under Section 192—in order to better understand the idea of TDS. It should be noted that because the income source in this instance is "salary," TDS is withheld under Section 192, and tax computations are done without taking the normal deduction of Rs. 50,000 into account.

Without TDS
With TDS
Salary Income
Rs. 6,00,000
Rs. 6,00,000
Total Income
Rs. 6,00,000
Rs. 6,00,000
Gross Tax Liability
Rs. 32,500
Rs. 32,500
Cess @ 4%
Rs. 1,300
Rs. 1,300
Less: TDS deducted
Rs. 33,800
Tax Payable at the time of filing the return
Rs. 33,800
Tax Refund

Two scenarios are contrasted in the above table: Situation 1 (without TDS) and Situation 2 (with TDS). In both cases, the total income and salary income stay at Rs. 6,00,000. In all situations, the gross tax liability is Rs. 32,500 plus a Rs. 1,300 4% cess.

The person in Situation 1 (Without TDS) owes Rs. 33,800 in taxes at the time the return is filed. There is no further tax due at the time the return is filed in Situation 2 (With TDS), where TDS of Rs. 33,800 has already been deducted, potentially leading to a tax refund. Let's get into it and find out what TDS is for.

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Purpose of TDS

TDS deduction is beneficial to both the government and individual taxpayers, serving several objectives and providing a number of benefits. The following is a brief summary of their main purposes:

  • Tax Avoidance Prevention: Describes the rented property, including its address and any specific details that define the premises being leased.

  • Steady Revenue Stream for the Government: The TDS system makes sure that the government gets money on a regular and consistent basis all year long. This is in contrast to the conventional strategy of collecting taxes at the time of filing returns. TDS's proactive approach contributes to the government's ability to sustain a steady revenue stream.

  • Individual Taxpayers' Perspective: TDS provides the ease of disbursing tax payments over the course of the year for individual taxpayers. When income is received, taxes are withheld at regular intervals to reduce the burden of a large tax payment at a later time. Eliminating the need to pay the whole amount owed in one payment helps people have a more predictable and manageable financial situation.

TDS Deductor and Deductee: Who Deducts TDS


The party making the money and the party receiving it are the two different parties in every financial transaction. Through the TDS Scheme, the government assigns certain groups of people the task of making payments and places them under the jurisdiction of TDS rules. In essence, the payer is accountable for withholding a certain amount as TDS and sending it to the government.

To be clear:

TDS Deductor:

This is the person who has to take a certain amount of TDS out of the money that is supposed to go to the payee, receiver, or deductee. The terms "deductor" and "payer" are synonymous since the former deposits the tax part with the government on the payee's behalf.

TDS Deductee:

The TDS Deductee is the person who gets the money that is left over after the tax is taken out at the source. This person, who is also called the "payee," gives permission for the deductor to take out the tax for them. After that, the tax is sent to the government.

The word "person," as defined by the Income Tax Act, includes a wide range of entities, including people, corporations, government bodies, non-residents, businesses, Association of Persons (AOP), Body of people (BOI), and Hindu Undivided Families (HUF). The precise responsibilities of the deductor and deductee are determined by the relevant section and the regulations that apply to the individual transaction at hand.

Payments Types Considered Under TDS

According to the Income Tax Act, the TDS program includes a wide range of payments that are deductible from taxes. These consist of wage payments to both residents and non-residents, in addition to non-salary payments including commission, dividends, interest, rent, winners from lotteries, royalties, and more.


In order to improve understanding, we have created a succinct summary table that lists the different sections. Section numbers, names, tax deduction rates, and threshold restrictions are all listed in the table. The threshold limit indicates the maximum amount for which a TDS deduction is not required.




R means Resident, 

NR means Non-Resident,

GTI means Gross Total Income,

and MMR means Maximum Marginal Rate.


For personalized advice and assistance with TDS compliance and optimization, consider reaching out to TaxBuddy, a reliable resource for expert tax-related support and information.

Process After TDS Deduction

A rental agreement is made legally valid and enforceable through the adherence to certain essential elements and legal requirements. Firstly, both the landlord and tenant must be competent parties entering into a voluntary agreement, with each party clearly understanding the terms outlined in the contract. The terms and conditions must be specific and unambiguous, covering crucial aspects such as the property description, lease duration, rent amount, and any obligations or restrictions imposed on the tenant. The agreement should comply with local and state laws governing landlord-tenant relationships. Signatures of both parties are typically required, signifying their consent and understanding of the terms.

Additionally, it is advisable to have witnesses or a notary public present during the signing to validate the document further. Ensuring that the agreement is in writing enhances its enforceability, as oral agreements may be challenging to prove in case of disputes. Overall, a legally valid and enforceable rental agreement is characterized by clarity, completeness, compliance with laws, and the voluntary acceptance of terms by both parties.


Following the deduction of TDS, a series of steps take place, which are described below:

Pay TDS to the Government:

Then, the amount of TDS that was deducted must be submitted to the government within a certain length of time, usually by the 7th day of the next month (or the 30th of April in the case of March).

TDS Return File:

Every quarter, the deductor is required to submit TDS returns. Declaring the financial information of each deductee for whom TDS was withheld during the relevant quarter is part of this process.

Correction to 26AS:

Form 26AS of the deductee is updated by the government upon receipt of the TDS amount. A detailed declaration reflecting the specifics of the tax submitted is Form 26AS.

TDS Certificate Issuance and ITR Filing:

The deductees are subsequently given TDS certificates, which serve as proof of the tax that was withheld at the source. The deductee (or payee) uses Form 26AS to claim the TDS credit when they submit their Income Tax Return (ITR) for the applicable financial year. This lowers their overall tax obligation as a result.

Tax Liability Modification:

The deductee uses the TDS credit shown on Form 26AS to modify their overall tax obligation. This adjustment is made at the time the income tax return is filed. It could sometimes lead to a tax or TDS refund.


By ensuring that TDS, as a method of collecting taxes at the source, is effectively handled, recorded, and credited to the appropriate taxpayers, this thorough procedure helps to create a more efficient and transparent tax system.

Due Date of Depositing TDS to the Government

It is essential that the deductor deposit the TDS amount with the government as soon as it has been calculated.


TDS Challan No. 281 is used to submit the TDS amount in order to facilitate the deposit. Use the link given to see the specifics of where this payment is being made.

The following are the deadlines for making TDS payments or depositing TDS:


TDS Adherence and Repercussions

In situations when TDS is not deducted (in whole or in part):

Interest on Late Deposits:

On the TDS amount, late deposit interest is charged at a rate of 1% each month or fraction of a month. According to Section 201(1A)(i), interest is assessed from the time a tax deduction was necessary until the actual deduction date.

For instance:

Date of Credit/Payment: August 16, 2017

Subtraction: 30 April 2018

Tax Deposit: May 5, 2018 Interest due: 16 August 2017 to April 30, 2018; interest calculated at 1% monthly.

Government Revenue Received but Not Deposited With TDS:

Interest Imposition: On the TDS amount that was deducted but not paid, interest is levied at a rate of 1.5% for each month or portion of the month.

For instance:

Date of Credit/Payment: August 16, 2017

Date of Withdrawal: August 16, 2017

Date of Tax Deposit: July 31, 2018,

1.5% monthly interest is due on August 16, 2017, and July 31, 2018, for a period of 12 months.

Prosecution under Section 276B: The Income Tax Officer may bring legal action against anybody who neglects to collect or deduct TDS or who fails to deposit it with the government after deducting it. In addition to a fine, the defaulter may be imprisoned for a minimum of three months and a maximum of seven years.

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TDS Certificate

The person who is deducting taxes (the deductor) issues a TDS certificate to the person who is the deductee. It acts as confirmation that taxes have been withheld and paid to the government. TDS certifications may be found on forms like Form 16, Form 16A, Form 16B, and Form 16C. The payment information, the deductor and deductee, the date of the tax deduction, and the date of credit to the government are all included in these certificates. These certificates may be used by taxpayers to make refund or credit claims when submitting their income tax returns.

Respective TDS Certificate
TDS Return Form No
Due Date
Time of Issue
Form 16 (For TDS on Salary)
Form 24Q
By 15th June of the F.Y immediately following the F.Y in which tax is deducted
Form 16A (For TDS on Other Income)
Form 26Q
Within 15 days of furnishing Form 26Q
Form 16B (For TDS on Purchase of Immovable Property)
Form 26QB
Within 15 days of furnishing Form 26QB
Monthly (Every transaction)
Form 16C (For TDS on Payment of Rent)
Form 26QC
Within 15 days of furnishing Form 26QC
Monthly (Every transaction)

Form 26AS

An annual consolidated statement that summarizes tax credit data for each taxpayer linked to their PAN is provided via Form 26AS. This form is kept up to date and maintained by the income tax department.

All information about the taxpayer and their financial doings and tax payments is fully recorded on Form 26AS. All of this information is collected if you have paid taxes, such as advance tax or self-assessment tax, or if any taxes have been withheld and deposited on your behalf (such as different TDS deductions).

This document is essential to your ability to file your income tax return and get credit for any taxes paid, including those withheld via TDS on your behalf. As a result, the information on Form 26AS must be accurate and consistent with the information included in the relevant TDS certificates.

Handling TDS Information that Doesn't Match Form 26AS

As we already said, it's important that the information on Form 26AS matches the real TDS that was taken out. If they don't, you won't be able to claim the benefits of the taxes you paid, or you may claim too much credit, which will result in a punishment. What should you do then?

The main reason for these kinds of mistakes is that the deductor changes information on the TDS return forms in the wrong way. Since ITD updates Form 26AS based on the filed TDS return, having wrong data will have an effect on your 26AS, which will then have an effect on your ITR.

Because of this, you need to contact the person who deducted the TDS and get all of the changes made. Only then should you file your ITR (or, in some cases, an updated one).

Getting the TDS Amount Back

When you file your income tax return, you may easily claim the advantage of TDS. To begin, get a copy of your Form 26AS and go over all the information it contains. If you amend your tax return to reflect these changes, you may lower your overall tax bill. If the sum of your TDS and advance tax is more than your entire tax obligation, this adjustment can potentially qualify you for a refund of your income taxes.

Obtaining TDS Exemption

Keeping your income below the basic exemption ceiling is vital if you want to get an exemption from TDS. To avoid tax deducted at source (TDS) on interest income, residents may utilize one of two forms: Form 15G (for those under 60 years old and Hindu Undivided Families) or Form 15H (for those 60 years and over). When you have an income that is higher than the limits set by some sections but still falls under the fundamental exemption level, these forms become relevant.

An application may be submitted with the jurisdictional tax officer by non-residents whose income is below the basic exemption ceiling, as per Section 195(3) of the Income Tax Act. To avoid paying tax withholding, this application requests a certificate stating that taxes will not be deducted or will be deducted at a reduced rate.


In summary, Tax Deducted at Source (TDS) is an essential part of the Indian tax system that ensures a consistent flow of income for the government and encourages tax compliance. Its methodical approach helps combat tax evasion, offers individual taxpayers financial ease, and supports an open and effective tax system.


For both individuals and organizations, it is crucial to comprehend the duties of TDS deductors and deductees, as well as the many sections under which TDS is applied. The TDS procedure, which includes deduction, return filing, and getting TDS certifications, is essential to creating a simplified tax environment.

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Frequently asked questions


1. Does TDS solely apply to salary income, or does it also apply to other kinds of payments?


TDS is not only for revenue from salaries. As stipulated by numerous provisions of the Income Tax Act, it is applicable to a variety of payments, such as interest, rent, commission, professional fees, dividends, and more.


 Is it possible for those who fall below the basic exemption ceiling to still get TDS exemptions?


Yes, those who fall below the basic exemption level are eligible for TDS exemptions. In particular, they may avoid paying TDS on interest income by filing Form 15G or 15H.


What information is included in TDS returns, and how often do TDS deductors need to submit them?


TDS (Tax taken at Source) reports have information about the PAN (Permanent Account Number) and the TDS challan. They also have information about how much TDS was taken and paid by the person who deducted it. TDS deductors usually have to send these reports every three months, on the times set by the tax authorities.


What are TDS certificates specifically used for, and how important are they to people submitting income tax returns?


TDS certifications may be obtained using forms 16A, 16B, 16C, and so forth. These certificates serve as evidence of taxes withheld and paid to the government, which is necessary for taxpayers to submit income tax returns and claim TDS credit.


 What happens if TDS is not submitted or withheld, and what legal proceedings may the Income Tax Officer pursue?


Interest penalties and other legal repercussions might result from neglecting to deduct or pay TDS. The Income Tax Officer may file a lawsuit, which might result in the defaulter paying penalties and spending time in jail.


If discrepancies appear between Form 26AS and the actual TDS deducted, is it feasible to update the TDS information?


Absolutely, people may remedy discrepancies by getting in touch with the TDS deductor to have false information on their TDS return forms corrected. Taxpayers may file their Income Tax Return (ITR) following the necessary changes.


Are there any certain dates for TDS payments, and what happens if the deductor misses these dates?


TDS payments have to be paid by certain dates, such as the seventh of the following month. Interest is charged on overdue payments. The deadline for non-government deductors is April 30th for March deductions.


What is the procedure for getting a certificate showing decreased or non-deduction of taxes, and may non-residents apply for TDS exemptions?


Under Section 195(3), non-residents may request a reduction in or prohibition on tax deduction by making an application to the jurisdictional tax officer.


What effect does the TDS credit on Form 26AS have on an individual taxpayer's total tax liability?


Deductees might possibly get a tax or TDS refund by using the TDS credit on Form 26AS to modify their total tax burden when submitting income tax returns.


What actions should people take when completing their income tax returns if they think they qualify for a TDS refund?


If an individual's total tax due is more than the sum of their advance tax plus TDS, they should carefully analyze Form 26AS, make the necessary modifications to their tax return, and claim the TDS refund.

Prachi Jain

Chartered Accountant

Prachi Jain is a Chartered Accountant with a passion for simplifying finance and tax-related matters through her insightful and informative blogs. With a background in finance and a deep understanding of tax regulations, Prachi has established herself as a trusted source of financial wisdom. Prachi is committed to empowering her readers with the knowledge they need to make informed financial decisions. Her expertise and dedication shine through in every blog post, helping her audience navigate the intricacies of finance and taxes with confidence. Follow Prachi Jain's blog for practical insights and guidance on managing your finances effectively.

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