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Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement: A Detailed Overview

Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement: A Detailed Overview

Working remotely or conducting cross-border business has grown more typical for both individuals and corporations as the globe grows more interconnected and globalised. This implies that they might be required to pay taxes in each of the several nations where they receive their income. There may be double taxation as a result. Double Taxation Avoidance Agreements (DTAAs) are helpful in this situation. We shall learn more about this Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement arrangement and its operation in this comprehensive guide.


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Understanding Double Taxation

Double taxation occurs when two taxes are levied on the same source of income before it is transformed into net income. Agreements against double taxation only aim to eliminate it where there is a cross-border revenue flow. Countries actively pursue them to avert a scenario in which foreign economic activity is discouraged. 

What is a Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement?

Double Taxation Avoidance Agreements are agreements made by two nations that encourage capital investment, trade, and the interchange of products and services by doing away with international double taxation. This suggests that some types of income generated in one country and payable to a tax resident of another have agreed-upon tax rates and jurisdiction. It is possible to prevent taxpayers in these 88 nations from paying taxes on the same income twice.

The taxation of revenue that crosses borders gives rise to the problem of double taxation. Depending on the kinds of enterprises or holdings that individuals of one nation have in another, the DTAA may target a single type of income or include all forms of income. The Double Taxation Avoidance Agreements (DTAA) protect the following categories: services, savings, capital gains, property, and fixed deposit accounts. These agreements lay out rules on which nation has the authority to tax different kinds of income. Usually, the primary authority to tax income is retained by the nation where it is earned; but, the nation of residents may also charge taxes, albeit at a reduced rate.


Indian resident A makes Rs. 2,500 from his investments in the United States. Both in India and the USA, this Rs. 2,500 would be subject to foreign income tax and non-resident income tax. If the tax rates in the USA and India are 30% each, A would only have Rs. 1000 (Rs 2500 – 60%) left over after taxes after paying an effective tax of 60% on his income.

Types of DTAAs

Double Taxation Avoidance Agreements (DTAAs) take many forms, each suited to the unique requirements and intergovernmental dynamics of the participating nations. The primary categories of DTAAs consist of: 

  • Bilateral Treaties: These bilateral agreements are the most prevalent type of DTAA. For example, the bilateral treaty known as the DTAA between the United States and India exclusively involves these two countries. These agreements are customised to the unique tax and economic environments of the two nations.

  • Multilateral Treaties: Compared to bilateral treaties, these accords are less frequent and involve several nations. Multilateral treaties are typically a component of larger regional or global cooperation frameworks, such as the conventions of the Asia-Pacific or South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). For the benefit of the group's member nations, these treaties ease international trade and investment by standardising tax laws across many nations.

  • Limited Agreements: Limited DTAAs only apply to particular categories of Income, giving them a more restricted reach. A restricted DTAA, for instance, might only cover revenue from the operation of ships or aeroplanes in international airspace. These agreements do not necessitate a full DTAA encompassing all forms of Income; instead, they are usually between nations with substantial commercial exchanges in certain industries. 

In terms of international tax law, each kind of DTAA has a distinct function that aids in minimising or doing away with the problem of double taxation while fostering cross-border business ventures.

Objective of DTAA

The purpose of the DTAA is to advance global trade. According to the agreement's stipulations, taxes on overseas income are only paid once. Thus, a person would be encouraged to conduct business abroad and broaden his earning potential if he knew that he would only be taxed once on his foreign income. Besides the avoidance of double taxation, here are a few other benefits of DTAA listed in detail:

  • DTAA agreements frequently contain clauses that work to stop tax evasion by making sure that individuals are unable to take advantage of gaps in international tax laws in order to avoid paying taxes. 

  • These agreements frequently make it easier for the tax authorities of the participating nations to exchange information. Enforcing tax rules and stopping criminal acts like money laundering and tax evasion depend heavily on this transaction.

  • DTAAs can be all-inclusive, covering all types of Capital and Income, or they can be limited to specific industry or income groups. While sector-specific agreements concentrate on certain sectors like income from shipping, aviation, etc., comprehensive agreements offer a broad framework covering a variety of income streams.

Benefits of DTAA

The Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement is beneficial to a lot of taxpayers. Preventing and avoiding the implementation of double taxation on the same income is the primary objective of this agreement. For individuals and businesspeople who reside in one nation but have established offices, shipping companies, or other kinds of operations in another, this is quite advantageous.

  • One of the objectives of a Double Tax Avoidance Agreement is to promote a country as an attractive place for investments, including relief from double taxation.

  • Offering credit for foreign taxes paid or exempting money earned abroad from taxation in the taxpayer's home country enables this relief from double taxation.

  • The DTAA provides tax exemptions in addition to preventing double taxation. The conditions and circumstances under which an individual may file an application for a tax exemption are outlined in the Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement. This exemption takes the place of capital gains taxes, which benefits traders and business owners in terms of trading and business.

  • It also prevents paying the same tax twice by providing a tax credit in the nation where the money is generated, sometimes known as the source country. In light of these benefits, it is imperative to sign the Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement in order to move funds appropriately and launch a business overseas without having to deal with the inconvenience of paying taxes on the same profit twice. 

  • The fact that DTAAs provide precise rules for taxing foreign income gives legal clarity, which is an additional advantage. This encourages international investment in emerging countries since the tax environment is predictable.

DTAA Rates

The DTAA, which India has signed with other nations, establishes the precise rate at which income sent to those nations' citizens must be subject to tax deduction. This suggests that the rates specified in the Double Tax Avoidance Agreement between that country and that country will apply to TDS for non-resident Indians (NRIs) who earn income in India. The tax rates of the various countries under the DTAA with India are as follows:

DTAA Rates

DTAA Rates

How does DTAA Work?

The source rule states that income is subject to taxation in the country of origin regardless of residency status. According to the resident rule, your income will be subject to taxation in the nation in which you currently call home, regardless of where it originated. The residence rule is adhered to in India. This implies that the nation in which you currently reside would tax your foreign income. Your foreign income would be subject to Indian taxes if you were an Indian resident. If, however, you are an NRI, you will pay taxes on your income from India as well as in the country where you currently reside. However, you may claim the benefit under the DTAA's terms.

Applicability of Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement

Only transactions that are taxable in both India and another nation are covered under the DTAA. Additionally, a foreign firm (FC) or non-resident (NR) should be one of the parties to the transaction. To apply for the Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement (DTAA), take the following steps: 

  • Step 1: Income Tax Act Tax Liability: Determine the categories of income covered by the DTAA and the corresponding Income Tax Act tax liability. 

  • Step 2: Liability for taxes under the DTAA: The income will be taxed in accordance with the DTAA's specified articles if it meets certain requirements. 

  • Step 3: Complete the tax obligation: Determine the relative advantages of the IT Act and the DTAA (Treaty Override) using section 90(2).

Documentation to Claim DTAA Benefits

NRIs must submit some paperwork to benefit from the DTAA's provisions and benefits. To take advantage of the requirements and advantages of the DTAA, NRIs are required to provide the previously indicated documentation. In addition to the documents listed below, a person must give the Tax Residency Certificate to a deductor to be eligible to receive benefits under this DTAA agreement. The following is a list of these documents:

  • Tax Residency Certificate (Form 10FA must be submitted to apply for a Tax Residency Certificate under sections 90A and 90 of the Income Tax Act). When the application is successfully verified and processed, the certificate will be issued under Form 10FB.) Declaration/Indemnity Form

  • A copy of the PAN card 

  • Xerox Passport

  • Self-Attested Visa

  • PIO Proof Copy 


A few important facts regarding the Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement are summed up in this post. It is possible to avoid paying two taxes by obtaining this benefit. However, it should be noted that a country may use a foreign tax credit document to prove that taxes were paid while deducting them at the source. As a result, different nations have different laws to prevent double taxation. Understanding the acronym for the DTAA and reading the terminology used by the relevant countries are essential for calculating the TDS rate. We hope that this article aids in your comprehension of the double taxation avoidance agreement concept.


Q1. What is double tax income?

The concept of double taxation pertains to the payment of income taxes on the same income twice or more. This typically arises when you have many sources of income or when you are subject to both corporate and personal income taxes. When the same income is taxed in two distinct countries—the country of residency and the country in which income is earned—double taxation also happens in international trade and business.

Q2. What are the rules of DTAA?

An agreement known as the Double Tax Avoidance Agreement (DTAA) has been signed by India and other nations. The agreement states that a person who resides in one nation and earns income there is exempt from paying two (double) taxes on the same income.

Q3. How many countries have DTAA with India?

Of the 88 nations with which India has Double Taxation Avoidance Agreements (DTAAs), 86 are currently in effect. For transactions involving people with interest between nations with which India has a bilateral treaty on trade and services, tax rates and jurisdiction on specific categories of income have been agreed upon. 

Q4. What is DTAA claim?

An agreement between two countries to prevent taxing the same revenue in both countries is known as a double taxation avoidance agreement, or DTAA. A Tax Residency Certificate must be shown by the assessee in order to be eligible for the DTAA benefit in India. The government of the nation where the NRI resides may provide the assessee with a Tax Residency Certificate.

Q5. What is the DTAA rate?

Depending on the exact memorandum that both parties sign, the DTAA's fees and regulations differ from nation to nation. Though rates generally vary from 7.50% to 15%, TDS rates on interest generated are 10% or 15% for the majority of countries. The list of DTAA rates for specific nations was previously discussed.

Q6. What is the DTAA between the USA and India?

The India-US DTAA streamlines tax duties for taxpayers involved in Indo-US economic activity by defining the tax treatment for a variety of revenue streams, such as interest, dividends, royalties, and fees for technical services.

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